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Old 10-23-2004, 01:51   #1 (permalink)
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Timeline: Ford Thunderbird Celebrates 50 Years Of Heritage

FORD THUNDERBIRD CELEBRATES 50 YEARS OF HERITAGE

BY Fiord Media
Photo's by thefreewheelers.org, tbirdranch.com, theautochannel.com, edmunds.com

FORD THUNDERBIRD – AN AMERICAN ICON – CELEBRATES ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY

The Ford Thunderbird, an American classic, became available to customers on Oct. 22, 1954.
In honor of the 50th Anniversary, Ford will commemorate the Thunderbird with a 50th anniversary fender chevron and special paint themes.

DEARBORN, Mich., Oct. 22 – The Ford Thunderbird went on sale Oct. 22, 1954 – starting a legend that would grow with each generation of Thunderbird cars. Since then, the flight of the Thunderbird has included classic two-seaters, cherished roadsters, convertibles and four-door models, as well as exciting hardtops and sedans – more than 1.2 million of them. We’ve seen the "square" look, the "projectile" look, the jet aircraft look and the luxury look. Yet, through the years and through the many changes, Thunderbird’s original uniqueness and individuality managed to etch itself permanently into the hearts and memories of the American motoring public.

The Beginning

Two men, Lewis D. Crusoe and George Walker, are credited by historians with being primarily responsible for the birth of the Thunderbird. Both were devoted to the automobile and its constant development and refinement. Both were recognized by their peers as "geniuses" in their field.

Crusoe, a millionaire lured out of retirement by Henry Ford II, was a businessman with a solid "feel" for the automobile market. As a Ford Vice President and Ford Division general manager, it was his responsibility to strengthen a young Ford Division — give it an automobile that breathed excitement — a car that would add prestige to the Ford name. Walker, later a Ford Vice President and chief stylist, is described by contemporaries as a "stylist with the soul of an artist burning in his heart."

It was October, 1951. Their mission in mind, the two men were walking along the aisles of the Grand Palais in Paris when Crusoe gestured toward one of the sportier automobiles on display, turned to Walker and asked: "Why can’t we have something like that?"

"We have a job just like that in the works right now," was Walker’s quick response. Indeed, it was so – as soon as Walker found it convenient to get to a telephone to phone his aides back in Dearborn. When Crusoe returned to the United States, there was a "job just like that" in the works.

In the months that followed, there was a lot of talk about a "true Ford sports car." Some preparations were made. "Paper sports cars" took shape in the design studios. All hands had been instructed to go to work on a completely new Ford car for the 1955-model year.

The initial concept called for a two-passenger, canvas-topped open car. Design objectives included a weight of 2,525 pounds, an Interceptor V-8 engine, balanced weight distribution, acceleration better than the competition and a top speed of more than 100 miles per hour.

With no time for scale-model studies, the first sports car styling suggestions were full-profile airbrush renderings on paper of five different cars, cut out and mounted so they could be viewed like automobiles on the highway. It was an effective, if unorthodox, technique. None of these proposals led directly to a final car, but each provided ideas for the full-size clay model that was taking shape.

While the clay model was being developed, other decisions were being made:


· The grille design would be a combination of the typically Ford arched upper shape and a Ferrari-style, egg-crate mesh.

· A handsome hood scoop was executed to cover a bulge that was created to house the air cleaner.

· "Bullet-shaped" insets at the end of the bumpers carried twin exhaust tips, then the latest in styling and, hence, a must for the new Ford.

On May 18, 1953, Crusoe saw a complete painted clay model for the first time. It closely corresponded to the shape of the first production Thunderbird.

The decision came in September 1953 when Crusoe – in Paris to view renowned sports cars of the world and measure them against the clay models back in Dearborn – decided the Ford car was right.

Although production wouldn’t begin until the fall of 1954, making the new car a 1955 model, Ford was anxious to tell the world about it. Only one small detail remained – a name for the car.

Naming a Legend

It has been said that there were 5,000 names considered. Hep Cat, Beaver and Detroiter were early, yet undistinguished, front-runners. Also suggested were Runabout, Arcturus, Savile, El Tigre and Coronado.

Crusoe was unimpressed with the suggestions in hand and offered a new $250 suit to anyone who could do better.

A young Ford stylist, Alden "Gib" Giberson, submitted a list of names to his boss, including one that would quickly earn approval and eventually acclaim – Thunderbird. He thought of the name because he had once lived in the Southwest, where the legend of the Thunderbird was well known.

The name Thunderbird comes from the deserts of Arizona and New Mexico where, according to Native American legend, the Thunderbird was a divine helper of man. Its great flapping wings, invisible to the eyes of mortal man, created the winds and the thunder and gave the desert inhabitants water to live on in the unyielding dry wilderness where they had been flung by fate.

Chief stylist Frank Hersey, also a South-westerner and an enthusiast, spotted the name on Giberson's list and immediately picked it for the new car. But when it came time for Giberson to claim his prize, the modest young designer passed on what would have been the equivalent of a $800-$1,000 suit today and settled for a $95 suit and an extra pair of trousers from Saks Fifth Avenue.

With the name settled and a couple of last-minute appearance changes made, the Ford Thunderbird was ready to go to market:


· Its first public appearance was Feb. 20, 1954, at Detroit's first post-war auto show.

· The first 1955 Thunderbird came off the line at Ford Motor Company’s Dearborn Assembly Plant on Sept. 9, 1954.

· Thunderbird went on sale Oct. 22, 1954 – starting a legend that would grow with each generation of Thunderbird cars.

The original Thunderbird was a racy two-seater with clean, crisp lines on a 102-inch wheelbase. Overall length was 175 inches, height was a low 52 inches, and the car was 70 inches wide. Standard curb weight was 3,180 pounds.

The base sticker price of $2,695 included the removable hardtop, but not the soft top. Clock, tachometer, power-operated seats and a 292 CID V-8 engine also were standard equipment. However, practically none of the early Thunderbirds left the dealership without either overdrive or an automatic transmission and most of the power options. Prices of the 1955 models ranged from $3,000 to $4,000.

The 1955 Thunderbird was more of a personal car concept than a sports car, the result of a decision Crusoe made during the winter of 1953-54. The more luxurious direction created the personal luxury car segment of the automotive market, and Thunderbird would enjoy almost uninterrupted leadership in this segment for decades.

Thunderbird was an immediate smash hit. Buyers of all ages and all walks of life described the car in terms such as "wonderful," a "masterpiece," "advanced automobile" and a "morale builder that is real fun and sporty to drive." A European admirer asked his American relative to buy the 1955 Thunderbird and ship it to him in Europe.

Motor Trend magazine editor Walt Woron loudly proclaimed that "although the Ford Motor Co. is the first one to deny it, they have a sports car in the Thunderbird, and it's a good one…The more I drove it, the more I liked it," gushed Woron, praising the T-Bird’s dashboard layout, as well as its straight-line performance. What Woron really liked was the way the Thunderbird handled: confidently, with no surprises, just as the engineers intended. "You can take any given curve," wrote Woron, "at 10 to 15 miles per hour more than the ’55 Ford."

The public went for the Thunderbird in a big way, placing more than 3,500 orders in the first 10-day selling period. The planning volume for the entire model year was only 10,000 units. Ford had explored an uncharted market for unique transportation and came up with a winner.

A Porthole to the Future

With all of its popularity, the flight of the two-seater Thunderbird was to be a short one. There were changes almost immediately after the car was introduced. The original design presented some problems. The cockpit needed better ventilation. Rear-quarter vision had to be improved. More trunk space was a necessity.

Design changes on 1956 models corrected these deficiencies. Flip-out side vents provided better ventilation; porthole windows enhanced rear vision and an outside tire carrier added trunk space. Standard equipment included energy-absorbing instrument panel padding, a concave safety steering wheel, safety door latches and a shatter-resistant mirror. Seat belts were optional.

Last-minute improvements, including the addition of the optional 312 CID V-8 engine, gave the second edition of the Thunderbird better handling and increased performance.

The 1957 Thunderbird was the first to have a fully padded dash surface. It featured optional Dial-O-Matic power seats and a radio that automatically adjusted the volume in proportion to the speed of the engine.

It would be the last of the two-seaters. With production of the 1958 models delayed, 1957 Thunderbird production continued for three extra months. The last one rolled off the assembly line Dec. 13, 1957. An era had ended.

Absolute evidence of the two-seat Thunderbird’s impact on the motoring world came just four years after the last one was built when TV’s Today Show host Dave Garroway referred to it as "an American classic." Generally, it takes decades for a car to receive such recognition.

The Classic Thunderbirds

1956 T-Bird


Seldom in the history of the automobile industry has a company achieved the success Ford reached in creating the Thunderbird. The car stunned the automotive world, and the effect was a lasting one.

It gave America and the world a handsome car that was entirely in the American idiom – a practical and enjoyable car for daily transportation and long trips, and a stylish, yet unique sporting machine with excellent performance and intriguing pedigree.

Vic Take of Clayton, Mo., took the first steps toward establishing the first Thunderbird club. He was the club’s first president. Today, Thunderbird clubs worldwide boast memberships in the thousands. Thunderbird acolytes long ago exhausted the search in garages, barns and junkyards all over North America and elsewhere for classic two-seat T-Birds to rebuild and refurbish. The remaining two-seaters are in the hands of collectors and restorers and on the pages of automotive history.

The Square Bird

1959 T-Bird


Thunderbird’s future for the next four decades belonged to the four-seaters. Certainly, the two-seater had given Ford Division the prestigious car it needed, and sales exceeded planning volumes in each of the three years it was on the market.

Economic realities of the times, the public’s motoring needs and Ford’s market share inhibited the potential of the car. Even as the two-seater was being designed, plans for a four-passenger personal car were on Ford’s drawing board.

The decision to build a bigger ’bird was justified by subsequent marketing research that showed two-seaters were not being purchased by families with children as their primary vehicle. Seating capacity and price restricted Thunderbird ownership to upper-income families.

Ford Division ushered in 1958 by unveiling the four-passenger Thunderbird before a group of prominent Americans at a New Year’s Eve Party at the exclusive Thunderbird Golf Club in Palm Springs, Calif. The public introduction was later in January.

The 1958 Thunderbird retained the classic lines of the original Thunderbird, plus some classic styling touches of its own, including the one-piece grille and bumper and clean contemporary rooflines that would set new styling standards for the industry. It was on a 113-inch wheelbase – 11 inches longer than the original – and its overall length of 205.4 inches was 30.4 inches longer. With an overall height of 52.5 inches, it still had a low-slung, relaxed, reverse wedge stance. Shipping weight was 3,799 pounds.

Another leading feature of the 1958 Thunderbird was unit frame construction, and the car boasted "more room per passenger than any luxury car." Front and rear headroom, according to the press releases, were "within a fraction of an inch of America’s other prestige automobiles."

Motor Trend magazine handed the T-Bird its "Car of the Year Award" for 1958, noting Ford’s totally new concept in interior packaging. The MT editors added that "the ride of the new Thunderbird is as comfortable as any American car today, regardless of size."

Horsepower also was close to that of the significantly bigger luxury cars. The 1958 Thunderbird engine was a 352 CID V-8 with a horsepower rating of 300. Other 1958 styling features included an anodized aluminum honeycomb-pattern grille, twin headlights deeply browed, with the brow line extending into the hood. Inside, there were individual bucket seats, and a console that housed controls for the heater, air conditioner and power windows, as well as a radio speaker and ash trays for front and rear passengers.

Classified as a "semi-luxury" car, the 1958 Thunderbird was square in design, with few concessions to rounded corners, fore or aft. It solidly established Ford Division in the luxury car market and was a sensation from the time it was introduced.

The standard two-door hardtop had a suggested retail price of $3,330, but $5,200 was considered an average delivery price. Sales totaled 48,482; almost matching two-seater deliveries for all of the three years the model was on the market.

1958

Two models, a hardtop and a convertible, were offered in 1958.

The unitized construction (unit frame) of the 1958 Thunderbird was a forerunner of this type of construction in the industry. The 1960 Thunderbird – last of the "Square Bird" designs – was the first American-built car to offer an optional sunroof.

Four or Two: It Matters to You!

Collectors in ever-growing numbers sought the 1958-60 "Square Birds." Despite the popularity of the two-seaters, "Square Bird" enthusiasts have as strong a following as two-seater worshippers. Certainly, there are more 1958-60 models to collect. Ford produced a total of 18,191 of the convertible and two-door Landau models. The Landau models with sunroofs are especially valuable since only a limited number – less than 500 – were built.

In the Ford Motor Company archives are various proposals of cars that weren’t built. Most featured sportier but less distinctive rooflines, with jet-powered front- and rear- treatments that would have done justice to Emperor Ming’s battle cruisers.

Projected in the ‘60s

1963 T-Bird


Thunderbird styling was again changed in 1961. Ford introduced the "projectile" look, a design featuring full-length body sculpturing and an even thinner roof than previous models. Standard equipment included automatic transmission, power steering and brakes. A unique swing-away steering wheel – ordered by nearly 77 percent of all Thunderbird buyers – was optional.

The "projectile" styling continued through 1963, with the 1962 model offering more than 100 improvements. Two exciting new models, a two-seater roadster and a vinyl-covered hardtop Landau coupe were developed.

A Cherished Roadster

It’s practically impossible to pinpoint the origin of the 1962 sports roadster. It was just "there" when the model year lineup was announced. It was a grand experiment, and the cult of Thunderbird sports roadster collectors quickly grew as the years passed.

It was an unusual car with molded fiberglass tonneau and padded headrests that transformed the four-seat convertible into a two-seater car.

The base roadster retail price was $5,439. Some fully equipped models sold for more than $7,000. After two years and a total production of 1,882, the sports roadster was discontinued.

End of the Beginning

1966 T-Bird


The 1964 Thunderbird reverted partially to the square design theme. It was more angular than the 1961-63 models, yet not as square as the 1958-60 models. The new styling featured a longer hood, a shorter roofline and sculptured side panels. With the bumper and grille designed to provide a faster, more aerodynamic look, the overall styling continued Thunderbird’s by-now traditional image of "swift-lined sleekness."

Though the design for the 4,760-pound car was essentially the same as 1964-65 models, the 1966 Thunderbird became a collector's favorite because it is regarded as the best of the four-seaters of the era. Ford discontinued the Thunderbird convertible after the 1966 model year. Not counting the two-seaters 70,244 were produced. 1966 marked the end of Thunderbird's youth, but many of those young 'birds would live on tucked safely away in garages across America.

Into the ‘70s

1968 T-Bird


The Thunderbird grew a little more when the 1967 models were designed. Overall length was 206.9 inches (1.9 inches more), and it seated six. The 1967 Thunderbird represented one of the most dramatic styling changes in industry history. It was a jet aircraft-like design featuring a long, thrusting hood and a short rear deck.

The front-end highlight was a crisp latticework grille deeply inset and outlined with thin, bright metal moldings on the top and sides. The grille was framed at the bottom by a new deep-sectioned bumper that blended into the sheet metal, and the headlights were concealed by the doors and the outboard edges of the grille.

From 1967-69, a four-door model was produced and rapidly gaining value in the collectors’ market.


Hidden Agenda

1970 T-Bird


The 1970 Thunderbird introduced new styling featuring a long hood treatment and a unique bumper/grille that made the bumper almost invisible.

Other exterior features included a new extruded-aluminum grille (the "poke-thru nose") flanked by dual headlights. A concealed radio antenna and hidden windshield wipers and cowl air vents provided a clean, "sweeping" line from the hood to the roof, and back-up lights were "concealed" in the center rear panel.

Ultra-luxurious appointments were on the inside. Included were a standard full-width front bench seat with individual bucket-style seat backs and a fold-down center armrest.

The powertrain for the 4,551-pound car was the 429 V-8 engine and Ford’s Select-Shift Cruise-O-Matic transmission.

His–and–Her Thunderbirds

By 1971, Thunderbird – the name and the car – were so popular that the famed department store Neiman Marcus offered "His and Her" Thunderbirds in its catalog, which lists "gifts for the person who has everything." The twin Thunderbirds were equipped with telephones, tape recorders and other special equipment, and carried a price tag of $25,000 for the pair.

‘80s

1980 T-Bird


1984 T-Bird Turbo Coupe


The early ’80s saw a completely different direction for the Thunderbird. It was smaller, more angular in styling and targeted to a more conservative, fuel-economy-conscious customer.

1983 took Thunderbird into a new design phase by introducing the "aero-style" Thunderbird that would lead Ford Motor Company and the industry in a new direction.

Thunderbird was all-new from the ground up in 1989, featuring an exterior design destined to further reshape the aero-styling trends of the ’80s. It was a leader in technology transfer from racing to production and was among the first vehicles outfitted with Ford’s next generation electronic engine control module developed by Ford’s Formula One racing program.

Thunderbird first appeared in NASCAR in 1959, winning six races in the top division. The mid-sized Thunderbird is one of the most successful cars in racing history, attracting legions of fans to Ford. The restyled Thunderbird burst onto the NASCAR circuit in 1982 and went on to win more than 150 races in NASCAR’s top division, including four victories in the Daytona 500.

Closing the Books…Temporarily

1997 T-Bird


As the 20th century grew to a close, customers’ tastes again shifted away from Thunderbird. Continuing sales declines led Ford to announce that the 1997 model would be the last – for a time.

Jacques Nasser, then president of Ford’s automotive operations, let there be no mistake when he declared that, although the old platform was going away, the Thunderbird nameplate would see a bright future in a very familiar form.

On Jan. 3, 1999, Nasser unveiled a new two-seat Thunderbird concept car at the 1999 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.

In May 2000, Ford confirmed it would build a production version of the hit concept car as a 2002 model year – thus the Thunderbird legend lived on into the new millennium.

The Rebirth

2002 T-Bird


The 2002 Ford Thunderbird was reborn on Jan. 8, 2001 when it made its regular production debut at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit and, on that same day, Ford officially opened the order banks.

The redesigned Thunderbird expressed a bold, confident and free feeling delivered in the form of a dramatically designed, two-seat, rear-wheel-drive V-8 powered convertible roadster – a modern throwback to another optimistic American era.

The 2002 Thunderbird used the visual cues from the classic cars with a modern interpretation that gave the new Thunderbird confidence and class. It came standard with a convertible and offered an optional removable hard-top with classic porthole windows, reflecting back on the car’s romantic heritage.

In a class by itself, the Thunderbird was a 107.2-inch wheelbase rear-wheel drive roadster with a smooth free-breathing 3.9-liter V-8 engine. Combining the styling, performance, ride and handling of a true American classic, the 2002 Thunderbird was a world-class roadster.

The Golden Anniversary

On Oct. 22, 2004 the Ford Thunderbird proudly celebrates 50 years as an icon in American history. Through the decades the two-seater dream car has carried the classic design cues and the character of a true American sports car, making the Ford Thunderbird very popular amongst its buyers. So popular, that over the past 50 years over 1.2 million Ford Thunderbirds have been sold.

The 2005 Ford Thunderbird continues to deliver a unique combination of classic American "relaxed sportiness," offering balanced performance with touring comfort. Still attracting a new generation of buyers, all 2005 edition Thunderbirds features a 50th anniversary commemorative fender chevron.
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My first car was a 67 Mustang Coupe, 2nd one was a 67 Cougar XR-7, 3rd one was a 66 Mustang Coupe. Why did I get rid of these cars for ? I know why, because I'm stupid, stupid, stupid.

My next Ford.....
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Old 12-11-2005, 08:03   #2 (permalink)
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Re: Timeline: Ford Thunderbird Celebrates 50 Years Of Heritage

Small, Big, Blunt, Aerodynamic and Always a Bird

By editors at Edmunds.com

Compared to the 21st century, vehicular choice was severely limited during the early '50s. There were sedans, coupes, station wagons, convertibles and even weird things like "sedan deliveries" back then, but essentially a Ford was a Ford and a Chevrolet was a Chevrolet — sedan, coupe, station wagon, convertible and sedan delivery were all straightforward variations on a common design. The domestic manufacturers didn't make compacts or subcompacts, SUVs were unheard of, and they didn't make sports cars until Chevrolet introduced the Corvette in 1953. And they didn't make a "personal luxury car" until Ford introduced the 1955 Thunderbird.

What the first Thunderbird delivered was style and sophistication that used to be available only from expensive imports like Mercedes-Benz and Jaguar with the simple construction and reasonable price tag of a Ford. What that first two-seat T-Bird didn't have was room enough for at least two more passengers. And it was when that room was added that the T-Bird really took flight.

Then more than 40 years later it was crushed under the churning knobby tires of the SUV craze. Only to rise — and fall — as a two-seater again.

First Generation (1955-1957): Classic Two-Seat Thunderbirds
If Chevrolet hadn't introduced the 1953 Corvette it's likely that Ford never would have felt compelled to develop the Thunderbird in response. But though the T-Bird was a response to it, Ford's two-seater was a distinctly different machine from GM's plastic-bodied sports car.

First of all, the Thunderbird's body, like that of all other Fords, was made of steel. Second, the Thunderbird was available solely with a V8 engine unlike the Corvette which started life with a straight six and only added the V8 as an option for 1955. And third, the Thunderbird wasn't trying very hard to pretend it was a sports car.

Like the Corvette, however, development of the Thunderbird was rapid. The development program, according to an internal corporate memo, was launched by Ford in February of 1953 just a month after the Corvette prototype's debut at the General Motors Motorama. In much the same way that GM developed the Corvette using standard Chevrolet mechanical pieces, the Thunderbird used very familiar elements. The frame was basically a cut-down version of the standard Ford frame with a 102-inch wheelbase identical to that of the Corvette and the 292-cubic-inch OHV V8 came straight from Mercury. The styling also carried over then-current Ford themes including the egg-crate grille, single headlamps faired into the front fenders, single circle taillights and stubby tailfins.

But while the standard Fords looked somewhat bulbous and awkward, the T-Bird was sleek, athletic and sophisticated. The half-covered rear wheel openings and whitewall tires didn't say much about performance back in '55, but the simulated air scoop on the hood, the engine-turned-dashboard and 150-mph speedometer all hinted that there was more aboard than in any normal Ford.

"Ford prefers to call it a 'personal car,'" explained Motor Trend back then. "The thinking behind this, as brought out in a discussion with W.R. Burnett, chief passenger car engineer for Ford, is that 'although the Thunderbird has the performance and attributes of most sports cars, management also felt that it should have a few more comforts to make it more appealing to a wider segment of the public.'"

All the original T-Birds were convertibles with a standard fiberglass hardtop (the canvas retractable top was actually an option). Breathing through a four-barrel carburetor, the 292 V8 was rated at 193 horsepower when backed by the standard three-speed manual transmission. Opting for the three-speed "Ford-O-Matic" three-speed automatic transmission brought with it a leap in engine output to 198 hp. The suspension was just as simple as that under any other Ford with the independent front suspension using coil springs and the solid rear axle on leaf springs. Braking was by a drum inboard of each oversize 15-inch wheel.

The Thunderbird went on sale October 22, 1954, and quickly overwhelmed the Corvette in sales volume. Ford had thought it would sell about 10,000 examples that first year, but found itself unable to keep up with demand and eventually knocked out 16,155 examples during the debut model year (production ran deep into September of '55 when the 1956 model Fords were already in showrooms). That was more than five times the number of Corvettes Chevrolet built that year — and all this despite a price tag that started at $2,695 but could run easily past $3,800 with options.

With such a solid start, Ford saw little reason to screw with the Thunderbird formula when it was time to develop the 1956 models. A "Continental Kit" was now standard that mounted the spare tire outboard of the car on the rear bumper. This cleared up more space for luggage in the shallow trunk, but made accessing that trunk more difficult because cargo now needed to be hoisted around the spare tire. The other big change was the addition of optional circular "portholes" in the fiberglass roof that eliminated some serious blind spots in the car. There were also new vents in the front fenders to bleed off heat before it cooked the driver's and passenger's feet into hams in Florsheims. Vent wing windows were also new and the car could be had in more colors and some two-tone paint schemes.

But the best news was a new optional 312-cubic-inch version of Ford's OHV V8 that was rated at a throaty 215 hp when inhaling through a four-barrel carb and backed by an overdrive manual transmission. That output swelled to 225 hp when the 312 was mated to the Ford-O-Matic. Output of the standard 292 V8 rose to an even 200 hp and it was only available with the three-speed manual transmission.

With the Thunderbird novelty wearing off slightly, Ford sold 15,631 of the '56 model.

The 1957 Thunderbird was significantly restyled with a more chiseled body, a larger front bumper around a larger front grille, a redesigned trunk lid and more pronounced, sharper-edged tail fins. The new trunk lid allowed the spare tire to move back inside, but aftermarket firms still sold Continental Kits to those T-Bird owners who liked the appearance of the external spare. Inside, the instrument panel from the standard '56 Ford was transplanted into the Thunderbird with an engine-turned-insert adding distinction.

The 312-cubic-inch V8 was now standard on the Thunderbird with output pegged at 245 hp. A version of that engine topped by two four-barrel carbs was optional and rated at 270 hp or 285 hp when equipped with a special "racing kit." A few Thunderbirds were also sold with a Paxton centrifugal supercharger heaving into their Holley four-barrel carburetor to make a thrilling 300 hp.

With such a broad range of options, and such an attractive updating of the styling, Thunderbird sales grew to 21,380 units during '57. That may have seemed like a lot compared to the two previous years' sales, but it was only a hint of what was to come.

Second Generation (1958-1960): Four-Seat "Square Birds"
Though the two-seat T-Birds exceeded Ford's own sales projections, the market for two-seat cars was just too restricted for a manufacturer as wed to the mass market as Ford to bother with. So it was an easy business decision to move the T-Bird to a four-passenger configuration. And that business decision paid off in huge sales even though the cars themselves have never attained the classic status of the originals.

In a fundamental way the first four-place T-Bird was a more radical machine than the smaller original. Because the new T-Bird was Ford's first car built around a unitary body and frame. While today virtually all new cars are based on unibody structures, back in the late '50s this was a big deal.

Virtually nothing carried over from the '57 Thunderbird to the 1958 edition. Beside the new unibody construction, the new T-Bird used a longer 113-inch wheelbase (11 inches up from before) to accommodate the second row of seats and the new car was available both as a convertible and as a hardtop. While many styling cues carried forward, they were exaggerated in the new car with larger tailfins, a larger phony hood scoop and body sides that seemed to be sculpted by six drunk Las Vegas showgirls. The front grille was now contained within the massive chrome bumper and the then current mania for dual headlights was indulged. Was the new Thunderbird ugly? That's subjective of course, but, yeah, it was ugly.

All the '58 Thunderbirds were powered by Ford's new 352-cubic-inch V8 that was rated at 300 hp with either three-speed manual or automatic transmissions. But with weight up about 1,000 pounds over the previous T-Bird, the '58 wasn't particularly quick. The suspension continued to use A-arms and coil springs up front, but the rear's solid axle now rode on coil springs as well.

"'Widest doors in the industry,' says Ford, and I believe them," wrote Motor Trend. "Seem almost like pulling a side (48.8 inches of it) off the car. Duck a little to get in, or better yet use the sports car technique of backing into the front seats. This is where comfort begins. Each of the four seats (two separates in front and two-in-one for the rear) is an honest-to-goodness bucket job. Soft springs in the center and back allow your body to drop into (rather than sit on) the cushions. Then you become conscious of foam rubber cushion edges which ride up around your thighs and back to provide the most comforting support of all '58s. As one engineer said, 'It's almost like riding with someone's arms around you.' (How nice.)"

Whatever the artistic merits or demerits of the '58 T-Bird, it sold spectacularly well. Ford built 37,892 of the '58s — that's 16,512 more than the previous year.

A new grille with prominent horizontal bars announced the arrival of the 1959 Thunderbird, but little other change was evident. However a 430-cubic-inch V8 swiped from Lincoln was now offered as an option and was rated at 350 hp. Sales soared and Ford put a stunning 57,195 Thunderbird coupes and 10,261 convertibles on the road this model year.

Yet another new grille came with the 1960 Thunderbird's appearance — this one an egg-crate style similar to the '58's, but with a larger egg crate imposed atop it. There were also trim changes along the car's flanks and a third taillight was added to each side. New to the car was a manually operated sunroof available as an option on hardtop versions. Sales took off again with Ford building an incredible 80,938 Thunderbird coupes and 11,860 convertibles during this model year.

When your company sells 92,798 cars under a brand name that three years earlier had been proud to sell 21,380, Ford's executives could only feel one way about the move from two- to four-seat Thunderbirds: vindicated.

Third Generation (1961-1963): "Bullet Birds"
The third Thunderbird was bigger, longer, wider, lower and one of the great signature designs of the 1960s. Stylistically related to the also new-for-1961 Lincoln Continental — the resemblance is most apparent in the grille, headlights and shared cowl — the 1961 Thunderbird was constructed around a new unibody structure with A-arms and coil springs making up the front suspension and the solid axle on leaf springs. With clean flanks and a nose that came to a sharp point, the car had an almost ballistic urgency and "Bullet Bird" was the name that stuck.

Once again the T-Bird was available as both a hardtop coupe and convertible. The coupe's formal roof was a bit discordant with the car's sleek lower body, but with the top down the convertible simply looked fantastic. Both were powered by a 300-hp version of Ford's new 390-cubic-inch V8 backed by a three-speed automatic transmission.

Inside, the new T-Bird took the concept of a wraparound cockpit to its logical extreme with a dashboard that curved at its ends to flow into the door panels. Getting into or out of the driver bucket seat was made easier (if not simpler) by a steering wheel that swung out of the way.

"Inadequate provision for luggage is the new Thunderbird's only serious fault and is a natural consequence of one of the car's greatest overall virtues, small overall size," wrote Motor Trend at the time — and indicating how what was considered small back then is big indeed today. "The idea of a luxurious, sophisticated design on a short wheelbase remains exclusive with Ford." Yes, the 113.2-inch wheelbase was relatively modest, but the car's overall length was hardly petite (the rear overhang was huge). And at nearly 2 tons, that 300-hp engine could only manage to push the car to 60 mph in 10.5 seconds according to Motor Trend.

The two-seat T-Bird returned (sort of) with the introduction of the "Sports Roadster" package for 1962 that covered over the rear seats with a stylish fiberglass tonneau that incorporated raised seatbacks for both the remaining seats. The tonneau was complex, expensive and, when the weather got nasty, a chore with which to deal if the driver wanted to put up the top. So only a few were built. And a small number of those were equipped with the new optional "M-Code" version of the 390 V8, which made 340 hp and was equipped with three two-barrel carburetors.

Some slight trim changes and a new vinyl-roofed "Landau" option were the only other changes for '62, and sales remained strong with 68,127 coupes and 9,844 convertibles being built and sold.

A new grille texture and three hash marks on each door were the most apparent changes to the 1963 Thunderbird line which otherwise carried forward intact — including the Landau and Sports Roadster. A total of 55 cars were equipped with M-Code option and of those 37 were Sports Roadsters. The M-Code Sports Roadster is generally considered the most collectible Thunderbird made since the original '55 to '57 models.

Though sales were still solid during '63, Ford was ready to redesign the Thunderbird once again.

Fourth Generation (1964-1966): "Jet Birds"
If the third-generation "Bullet Birds" brought style to the four-seat Thunderbird, the fourth generation was an expansion on that start — more an evolution of style than a whole new invention.

Where the Bullet Birds were rounded, the next-generation "Jet Birds" (or "Sculpted Birds") were squared off and sharp. The proportions, however, were similar in silhouette with both a long hood and a long trunk over a relatively short 113.2-inch wheelbase. Dual headlights, a low-placed sweeping grille and upright windshield all were similar to the Bullet Bird, but the deeply sculptured sides were new as were the large rear taillights. In fact those taillights would become the new Thunderbird's signature innovation — but not during '64.

Both coupe and convertible models continued with the 1964 Thunderbird and the separate Landau model also carried forward. However, the Sports Roadster was gone. Two versions of Ford's 390-cubic-inch V8 were available both topped by Holley four-barrel carburetors. The base 390 used one Holley and a 10.0-to-1 compression ratio to make 300 hp while the optional high-performance version ran 10.5-to-1 compression and two Holleys and was rated at 330 hp. Both were backed by a three-speed automatic transmission.

"One additional item that should accompany milady when she drives her Thunderbird downtown for a shopping spree is an auto club membership," wrote Motor Trend. "Should a tire go flat, few women would be able to wrestle the heavy spare wheel and tire out of its high resting place or over the trunk's high lip…Ford's Thunderbird fills its intended purpose. It's a real prestige four-seater. Granted it's not everyone's cup of tea, but for bird lovers, it's the 'only way to fly.' Flight plans, anyone?"

Sales were strong once again with Ford building 92,465 Thunderbirds during this model year.

The taillights became spectacular for 1965 as they gained sequential operation. Each taillight was divided into three segments which, when the turn signal was turned on, would light sequentially in the appropriate direction — quite a show. New reversed scoops appeared in each front fender and there were a few other trim tweaks, but the car was otherwise virtually unchanged from before. The drivetrains also carried forward though the front wheels now sat outboard of disc brakes. Despite the fascinating taillights, sales drooped to 74,972 Thunderbirds.

Though the basic body shell remained intact, the 1966 Thunderbird was extensively restyled with a new, tight egg-crate pattern grille, and the two taillights were now connected into one massive piece of plastic. Generally speaking, it was the best-looking of fourth-generation T-Birds.

It was also — at least potentially — the quickest. While the base 390 V8 was now restricted by a two-barrel carburetor to 275 hp, a 315-hp version with a four-barrel was optional and a new 428-cubic-inch V8 with a four-barrel carb making 345 hp optional.

The '66 T-Bird sold a so-so 69,176 units but was destined for fame. A quarter-century later, it was a '66 Thunderbird convertible that Thelma and Louise drove off a cliff into oblivion in the film that wore their names as the title.

The next Thunderbird would take the car in an entirely new direction.

Fifth Generation (1967-1971): "Big Birds"
Unibody construction was abandoned as the all-new 1967 Thunderbird was now built on the ladder frame similar to (and on the same massive scale) as that under the full-size Fords. Some styling cues carried forward from the '66, including the large rear taillights, but many traditional Thunderbird elements like the phony hood scoop were gone. And, for the first time, no convertible was offered…and a four-door sedan was.

Sitting on a 115-inch wheelbase when it was a two-door and a 117-inch span when it was the four-door Landau sedan, the overwhelming styling element of the '67 Thunderbird was its massive blunt and oblong front grille with hidden headlights and a giant Thunderbird spreading its wings from side to side. The chassis was straightforward Ford with double A-arms in front and solid rear axle all suspended on coil springs.

No '67 Thunderbird weighed less than 4,200 pounds with the four-door (with Lincoln-style suicide doors) crushing the planet with 4,348 pounds of Ford fowl. But the selection of 390- and 428-cubic-inch power plants from '66 continued forward unchanged, so acceleration was muted.

The 1968 Thunderbird was a carryover of '67 with minor trim variations and new wheel covers. The 1969 edition featured another slight variation in trim with the front grille now divided by three vertical bars and the taillights redesigned.

A clever redesign disguised the fact that the 1970 Thunderbird was mostly a carryover from '69. A new nose with a pointed prow and exposed headlamps updated the front, while new taillights that seemed to droop at the ends brought up the rear. The hardtop had semifastback styling while the two- and four-door Landaus were more formal and had vinyl on their roofs. Sales totaled 50,364 Thunderbirds.

The 1971 Thunderbird was only barely updated from '70 with a new brighter grille and other slight trim variations. Sales sunk to 36,055 units as Ford was preparing a new — even bigger — car for the next year.

Sixth Generation (1972-1976): "Bigger Birds"
For all intents and purposes the 1972 Thunderbird and Lincoln's Mark IV were the same car with a scant few superficial differences. And that car was huge.

Riding on a 120.4-inch wheelbase and stretching out a monstrous 214 inches overall, the '72 Thunderbird was a full 38.7 inches longer than the original '55 edition and at 4,420 pounds it weighed in 1,460 pounds heavier. Available only as a two-door hardtop coupe, the Thunderbird had doors about the size of a county in Kansas and a hood so long it was rated a par five by the PGA. Parking was best accomplished by a trained harbor pilot with the help of three or four good tugboats.

Virtually all the traditional Thunderbird styling cues were banished from this generation. The centered and formal grille was framed by dual headlights on either side and virtually all T-Birds now had a vinyl top over a thick C-pillar that produced massive blind spots to either side. The full-width rear taillight was about the only element that tied this 'Bird to previous editions. And virtually all the luxury equipment that came on the Mark IV was aboard the T-Bird as well.

Built on a huge ladder frame with conventional double A-arm front suspension and a solid axle in the rear on coil springs, the '72 T-Bird wasn't in the least sporting. The standard engine was a 429-cubic-inch V8 that, thanks to the strangling effect of primitive emissions technology, was rated at a puny 212 hp. The optional V8 displaced 460 cubic inches and was rated at 224 hp. So despite the greatest displacement yet seen in a production Ford car of any sort, this new T-Bird was not quick.

But in the early '70s — before the fuel crises to come — this was a car America wanted and Ford sold 57,814 of them during the model year.

Trim changes, including new fender edge front turn signals, were part of the 1973 Thunderbird, but the essential car was barely changed. The most appreciated change was the adoption of a trapezoidal opera window in the C-pillar that added some needed visibility. For no apparent reason, sales spiked up to 87,269 Thunderbirds.

New bumpers built to meet federal 5-mph standards stretched the 1974 Thunderbird to a staggering 225 inches long overall. Also the 460-cubic-inch V8 was now standard but its power rating slipped to just 215 hp. Throw in some more trim and a fuel crisis, and sales fell to 58,443 units.

Four-wheel disc brakes were part of the Thunderbird package for 1975, but other changes were limited to trim modifications (half vinyl roofs were available!). Despite the adoption of a catalytic converter, output of the gargantuan 460 V8 actually rose 3 hp for a total of 218. Sales slumped again to 42,685 cars.

Trim changes were about the only distinguishing factors on the 1976 T-Bird. But Ford found another 52,935 buyers for the car despite its 4,808-pound base curb weight.

However, while Ford was selling those 52,935 '75 Thunderbirds it was also pushing out 146,473 units of its "Elite" midsize personal luxury coupe. Maybe the next Elite didn't need to be an Elite at all…and maybe the next Thunderbird didn't need to be a Lincoln.

Seventh Generation (1977-1979): "Torino Birds"
Ford redesigned its midsize cars for 1977 and in the process the Torino name was exchanged for "LTD II" and the Elite personal luxury car was replaced with a new car bearing the name Thunderbird. While the sheet metal was new on all of Ford's midsize machines, the basic structure and engineering elements were still derived from the Torino and the Fairlane that preceded it.

Midsize back in the '70s would be considered very large in the 21st century, but the move to the smaller platform produced a profoundly smaller Thunderbird than the car that wore the name the year before. Now riding on a 114-inch wheelbase, the '77 T-Bird was now 215.5 inches long overall — nearly 10 inches shorter than before. And at 3,907 pounds, its base curb weight was done just over 900 pounds. Beyond that the base price dropped from $7,790 to $5,063 — albeit at lower equipment levels. What wasn't down was interior room that, in many critical dimensions, actually went up.

Mechanically the '77 T-Bird was strictly conventional with a double A-arm front suspension and a solid rear axle on coil springs. The base V8 was now Ford's 302-cubic-inch small-block V8 equipped with a two-barrel carburetor rated at just 137 hp. Two versions of Ford's 351-cubic-inch "Windsor" and "Cleveland" small-block V8s were optional and rated at 149 and 161 hp, respectively, and there was a 400-cubic-inch small-block rated at 173 hp. All '77 T-Birds were equipped with three-speed automatic transmissions.

Handsomely clean in its styling with hidden headlamps, and a small opera window in the B-pillar just forward of a large trailing edge side window, the new Thunderbird was firmly planted in the mainstream of the midsize personal luxury car market against such cars as the Chevrolet Monte Carlo, Pontiac Grand Prix and Chrysler Cordoba. And it was a huge hit with Ford making a simply stunning 318,140 of them during this model year — more than tripling the sales of any previous year's Thunderbird.

There were a few trim changes and special-edition models like the "Diamond Jubilee" Thunderbird for 1978, but otherwise the car carried over pretty much as it was in '77. The result was another record sales year with 333,767 T-Birds finding homes.

A new grille with thick crosshatch bars was the most obvious change to the 1979 edition of the Thunderbird. There were revised taillights as well as a few tweaks to the engines, but the status quo was otherwise retained. A solid 284,141 units were sold.

By the measure that matters most to a car company — sales — the midsize Thunderbird was a simply staggering success. And Ford was going to keep the car in that class with the next-generation machine. That would prove problematic, however.

Eighth Generation (1980-1982): "Fairmont Birds"
Ford's Fox platform was introduced during the '78 model year on the Fairmont compact replacement for the Maverick and a cleaved-down version of the Fox would underpin the Mustang all the way from '79 to 2004. But the first application of the Fox structure to the T-Bird was thoroughly disappointing.

All Fox platform vehicles were unibody structures with modified MacPherson strut front suspension and a solid rear axle on coil springs. While the Fox was a flexible platform, it was significantly smaller than the '79 T-Bird so the 1980 T-Bird would be smaller, too. That meant a 108.4-inch wheelbase and an overall length of 200.4 cubic inches — bigger than the Fairmont but down 5.6 inches in wheelbase, 14.6 inches in overall length from before. The new Thunderbird was also about 900 pounds lighter and rated to carry only four people instead of the previous six.

Unfortunately Ford retained most of the big-car styling elements for the new T-Bird and the formal upright grille, massive taillights and thick roof all looked awkward on the smaller car. Beyond that the standard power plant was now a 255-cubic-inch version of the Ford small-block V8 that made a pokey 115 hp. The only optional engine was the formerly standard 302 V8 carrying a two-barrel carb and rated at 131 hp. The 255 was quite simply the worst V8 Ford had ever built and rightly shunned by most buyers. The 302 was better, and it was helped along by the four-speed automatic to which it was lashed, but not great. The new smaller T-Bird was simply boring to drive.

Despite the presence of such options as Recaro front seats and a suspension tuned around Michelin's TRX tires, the new boxy Bird was soundly rejected by the marketplace. Sales crashed down to just 156,803 units — less than half what Ford had sold just two years previously.

So Ford compounded the problem in 1981 by offering a six-cylinder engine in the Thunderbird that year — the first time in the car's history something other than a V8 was available. Offered as a credit option (the price was dropped down from the standard T-Bird if the six was ordered), the 200-cubic-inch inline six was a version of Ford's ancient design and made just 88 hp. Obviously the six-cylinder '81 T-Bird was a simply awful package.

Recognizing mediocrity when it saw it, buyers continued to flee from the Thunderbird during this model year and sales collapsed to 86,693 cars.

Unbelievably the car got even worse for 1982 as the six became the standard engine, a new 3.8-liter OHV V6 making 112 hp was offered as an option and the only available V8 was the lousy 255. There were also some trim changes, but the public stayed away in droves and sales plummeted to just 45,152 units.

Something had to be done. But no one was expecting what Ford would do.

Ninth Generation (1983-1986): "Aero Birds"
Ford knew it had to do something radical to save the Thunderbird and that arrived in the form of the obviously aerodynamic 1983 model. Styled first and foremost with aerodynamic efficiency in mind, the new T-Bird was slick and sleek in a way no previous Thunderbird — or Ford for that matter — had ever been. And it set the style for Ford products throughout the '80s.

But under the new sheet metal, the Thunderbird still used the ubiquitous Fox platform. That was no bad thing really, as it was at least as good as the structure upon which the T-Bird's direct competitors were based. The wheelbase was now down to 104 inches and overall length to 197.6 inches. The standard power plant was now the 3.8-liter V6 making 110 hp and optional was the 302 V8 (now expressed as a 5.0-liter even though its displacement was closer to 4.9 liters) making 130 hp and fitted with electronic fuel injection.

There was, however, a third Thunderbird power plant available in the new "Turbo Coupe." This was a turbocharged and electronically fuel-injected version of Ford's 2.3-liter, OHC four making 142 hp. Mated to a five-speed manual transmission (the first ever in a T-Bird), the turbo four wasn't overwhelming in the more than 3,000-pound Thunderbird, but it successfully retrieved some of the sporting heritage that had been missing from the line since at least the '63 Sports Roadster. And it quickly developed a cult following that continues today.

The aerodynamic T-Bird was a hit, even if it didn't recover the enormous sales of the '77 to '79 editions. Ford sold 121,999 of them during the first model year.

Some model names were modified and there were trim changes, but the 1984 Thunderbird was a virtual rerun of the '83. Sales grew stronger with Ford putting 170,533 into customers' garages.

Better boost control thumped the output of the Turbo Coupe's four to 155 hp for 1985 and there were new taillights and other tweaks to the Thunderbird line. But those were all minor and sales dipped slightly to 151,851 units.

The Thunderbird got a new center high-mounted stoplight (CHMSL) like every other 1986 model car sold in the U.S., but other changes were slight. The 5.0-liter V8 now used multipoint fuel injection that brought its output up to 150 hp, but the other engines carried forward unchanged. Sales rebounded slightly to 163,695 Thunderbirds.

Besides its success in the showroom, the aerodynamic Thunderbird proved an amazing success on NASCAR racetracks with competitors like Bill Elliott (who won 11 races during 1985) driving it to unheard of speeds. At the 1986 Winston 500 at Alabama International Speedway in Talladega, Elliott qualified his T-Bird on the pole with a shocking 212.229 mph qualifying speed. In fact only one car would ever be a quicker stock car…the next T-Bird.

10th Generation (1987-1988): "Even More Aerodynamic Birds"
While the change between the '86 and 1987 Thunderbirds wasn't particularly radical at first glance, in fact all the sheet metal was new, the headlights now were aerodynamically shaped, the side glass now fit essentially flush with the doors and the Turbo Coupe now had vents in the hood and a new real front grille. It was an evolutionary step forward from the previous T-Bird and it was undeniably handsome.

But not much changed underneath the car as the Fox platform chassis carried through essentially unmodified. The base 3.8-liter V6 now had fuel injection and made 120 hp while the optional 5.0-liter V8 continued to offer 150. Thanks to the fitment of an intercooler, the Turbo Coupe's 2.3-liter four now ripped out 190 hp and was significantly more refined to drive. Sales of the '87 Thunderbird were solid at 128,135 units.

A new multipoint fuel-injection system boosted output of the 3.8-liter V6 to 140 hp for 1988, but other changes were slight and imperceptible. Sales bounced up to 147,243 units.

During qualifying for the 1988 Winston 500 at Talladega, Bill Elliott put his '88 T-Bird on the pole with a 212.809-mph run. But during that race Bobby Allison's Buick nearly went into the stands during a spectacular crash and NASCAR started fitting cars on their fastest tracks with power-limiting carburetor restrictor plates. So Elliott's 212.809 qualification run from way back then remains the quickest run ever by a NASCAR stock car. It may always be that way.

It was time for yet another T-Bird and this one would be the most technologically advance yet. And deeply controversial both inside and outside Ford.

11th Generation (1989-1997): "High Tech Birds"
At a time when many other cars were shrinking in size, the 1989 Thunderbird appeared significantly larger than its immediate predecessor and significantly more sophisticated in its engineering.

The all-new '89 T-Bird was truly all-new and the unibody structure was initially shared only with the car's Mercury Cougar near twin. This large car used a 113-inch wheelbase and was 1.6 inches wider than before. While overall length was actually down by 3.4 inches, the overall impression was of a much larger car. The suspension was, for the first time on a Thunderbird, an all-independent affair with short and long A-arms and coil springs up front and upper and lower arms in the back on coil springs. The big problem though was weight with the T-Bird coming in at 3,542 pounds in its lightest form — very porky. And there were no V8 engines around to push all that mass.

In fact the standard power plant was the 3.8-liter V6 used in the previous T-Bird and its 140 hp was severely taxed by the car's mass (the only transmission available with this engine was a four-speed automatic). A more engaging alternative was the new Thunderbird Super Coupe which replaced the Turbo Coupe and used a version of the 3.8-liter V6 fitted with an Eaton Roots-style supercharger that made 210 hp and was available hooked either to a five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission. "The Thunderbird levels its competition," wrote Motor Trend while naming the Super Coupe its car of the year for 1989. "Nothing else in the price range offers the same irresistible blend of sporting performance and solid luxury." Ford sold a total of 107,996 Thunderbirds during this year.

But despite Motor Trend's accolade, the Thunderbird came in overweight, over budget and it was too expensive to build. Inside Ford, heads rolled as the car's development became a case study in how not to develop a new vehicle.

Except for the introduction of a special-edition 35th Anniversary model of the Super Coupe with specific paint and wheels, little changed for the 1990 Thunderbird. Sales dipped slightly to 104,602 cars.

Thanks to a rush development program, the 5.0-liter V8 returned to the Thunderbird during the 1991 model year. Available in the upmarket LX model, the fuel-injected 5.0-liter was now rated at 200 hp and mated to the familiar four-speed automatic transmission. Otherwise the T-Bird was very much a carryover product and sold 77,688 units.

A redesigned front bumper, slightly tweaked taillights and new paint colors came along with the 1992 Thunderbird. But not much else changed and sales stalled at 73,892 cars.

The base Thunderbird was excised from the 1993 model lineup and the car was now available either as an LX with either the 3.8-liter V6 or 5.0-liter V8, or as a Super Coupe with the supercharged version of the V6 aboard. Sales rebounded impressively this year with 129,712 units finding homes — or increasingly a spot in rental fleets.

Dual airbags were standard equipment in the 1994 Thunderbird that also featured a new front fascia with a slight wedge shape and the suggestion of a grille opening. Ford's SOHC, 4.6-liter V8 replaced the 5.0-liter V8 and offered 205 hp and much more refined manners. Sales were a solid 120,320 units. During a carryover 1995 model year, another 114,823 were built.

The Super Coupe didn't live to see 1996 as the Thunderbird line was reduced just to the LX model with either the 3.8-liter V6 or 4.6-liter V8. Sales dropped to 85,029 cars.

There was a new instrument cluster in the 1997 Thunderbird plus some new colors and a new deck lid spoiler, but the car itself was obviously doomed as Ford shifted its concentration to the increasingly profitable SUVs and trucks. After building another 73,814 Thunderbirds, Ford shut down the production line after 43 model years. And that was that. Right?

12th Generation (2002-2005): Retro Birds
At the 1999 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Ford displayed a concept car that brought the Thunderbird back to its roots as an open two-seat roadster. The response Ford got was electric and three years later it had a production version ready for public consumption.

"The 2002 Thunderbird is meant to recapture the romance of the original while simultaneously looking to the future," wrote our Erin Riches on first encountering the reincarnated 'Bird. "Rather than create a replica of the '50s classic, designers incorporated distinctive Golden Age design cues into an overall modernistic shape. The new 'Bird's 186.3-inch overall length is 11 inches longer than the original 1955 model, and it, too, features a short front overhang, reverse wedge shape — which makes the car appear taller in front than in back — and egg-crate grille. A decorative hood scoop, round head- and taillights, understated chrome chevrons and an available removable hardtop with porthole windows tie the 2002 version beyond a doubt to the classic T-Birds of the late '50s."

The substance of the new Thunderbird was a chopped-down version of the chassis and mechanical components used in the midsize Lincoln LS sedan. That included its all-independent suspension, 3.9-liter, DOHC, 32-valve V8 making a modest 252 hp, and five-speed automatic transmission. John DiPietro wrote our full test and observed "[t]hat same heft that blunts off-the-line acceleration may be to thank for this convertible's impressively solid structure. Bounding over potholed and tar-stripped roads in Greater Los Angeles elicited barely any cowl shake from the T-Bird. We did notice some occasional squeaking coming from the front seats and the dash, a quality that doesn't belong in a near-$40,000 automobile. In its defense, this was an early production car that had been subjected to a long tour of duty as a press car, and we all know that means this poor car hasn't been treated with kid gloves….

"Nope, this car is not about driving hard. Rather, it's about destressing by putting the top down, throwing in a Beatles or Beach Boys CD, taking a long, scenic ride and going back to a time when pleasures were much simpler than they are today."

While the initial mania for the new Thunderbird was intense, that mania quickly cooled. By 2003 the T-Bird was in plentiful supply and by 2004 Ford had announced that it would leave production. And it will after the 2005 model year.

It seems that two-passenger T-Birds weren't a sustainable business proposition in the '50s. And they aren't in the 21st century, either.


1955 Ford Thunderbird


1960 Ford Thunderbird


1962 Ford Thunderbird


1965 Ford Thunderbird


1968 Ford Thunderbird
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My first car was a 67 Mustang Coupe, 2nd one was a 67 Cougar XR-7, 3rd one was a 66 Mustang Coupe. Why did I get rid of these cars for ? I know why, because I'm stupid, stupid, stupid.

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Old 12-11-2005, 08:04   #3 (permalink)
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Re: Timeline: Ford Thunderbird Celebrates 50 Years Of Heritage

(Continued)


1974 Ford Thunderbird


1977 Ford Thunderbird


1980 Ford Thunderbird


1983 Ford Thunderbird


1988 Ford Thunderbird


1996 Ford Thunderbird


2002 Ford Thunderbird
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My first car was a 67 Mustang Coupe, 2nd one was a 67 Cougar XR-7, 3rd one was a 66 Mustang Coupe. Why did I get rid of these cars for ? I know why, because I'm stupid, stupid, stupid.

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biggrin Re: Timeline: Ford Thunderbird Celebrates 50 Years Of Heritage

Ahh the T-Bird! What a beautiful car it was, is and will be
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