OK, I'll have a go. I guess everyone has to learn this stuff somewhere;
- the surface treatment of metals by bombarding it with small balls of shot (metal) to increase the density of the surface layer and remove minor imperfections that can be initiation points points for stress failures. Increases durability.
- as EAII_Fiarmont has said, the application of the cross-hatch pattern on the cylinder bore aimed at oil retention and the proper sealing of the piston rings. Done during reconditioning or on new engines prior to assembly.
- attempt to balance (as much as possible) the rotating and reciprocating mass of the engine. Reduces vibration (obviously) and associated stresses and should allow for more rapid changes in the revs and possibly higher revs to be maintained.
- the process of ensuring every part of the engine or whatever confirm to the original design specs (ie. the blueprint). Typically ensuring each combustion chamber has the same volume, piston & rod mass consistent throughout engine, all clearances confirm to specs etc.
Difference between honing and boring
- Honing is as described above, where a surface finish is applied to the cylinder bore (without changing it's size) while boring is the increasing the internal bore of the cylinder to increase the capacity of the motor or during reconditioning to move up slightly to the next size piston/ring set (eg. 40thou oversize(imperial))
- ensuring a flat surface at the top of the block for cylinder head mating (may also be ensuring this surface is parallel to crankshaft and at 90deg to bore?)
- skimming the top of the block (deck) to increase compression.
I'll admit I may have the above two confused.
- applying a thick rigid plate to the block and torquing this down to head bolt specs to simulate the stresses within an assembled block prior to carrying out machining of the bores (boring). This is to ensure that the assembled block confirms to the machining specs as the block may deform under the loads applied during assembly.
Why do you want shotpeened pistons?
Given that you are still climbing the learning curve I would suggest you discuss with a number of engine builders what you are trying to achieve and see what they recommend rather than specifying work for them to perform. It could be a lot less expensive - it all depends on what you are trying to do.
The performance of an engine has to do with how much and how efficiently it can use the air/fuel that you can cycle through it and where in the rev range is the re******t torque maximised.