Re: exaust tips?
Ok- theory just tested on Mellophone (beginners french horn). Not having the piping and bell ("tip"), it sounds like a kazoo, but is rather quiet.
Add half the piping of the instrument, and it changes the resonant frequencies, only allowing certain pitches. The tube is the same diameter, just about 40cm long as opposed to just the mouth piece (about 5cm). The sound is slightly more mellow, but there is no volume increase.
Add rest of instrument (incl bell) and the volume increase in phenomenal, as in the change in tone. The hissy sound is almost gone and the "buzz" of the lips moving has become a nice mellow note.
When a small funnel was used half way along the instrument tubing, there was a fair increase in volume and the tone was much more mellow than the open tubing alone.
So according to this little experiment, tips DO make a difference. They may not change the PITCH of the note (and note that i never said that it would), but it will change the TONE of the note. Now a tip that is very short and has a sudden step out to a large diameter...well thats just the same as venting into the air. But a tip with a more progressive diameter (cross section for non round tips..) increase over a longer distance WILL alter the sound of the exhaust (NOT THE PITCH THOUGH), as long as its a larger diameter and a fair length. Believe what you want- being a musician for 10+ years has proven enough to me.
1987 Jaguar Sovereign - Metallic Green
3.6L DOHC 24 Valve